ASHOKA IAS STUDY CIRCLE Excellence in Civils &Groups Coaching
GROUP-I SERVICES (HONS. DEGREE STANDARD)
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
Selection Subject Dura-tion (Hours) Maximum Marks
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
General Studies & Mental Ability
(Objective Type) 150 Questions.
A. COMPULSORY SUBJECTS:
Paper-I. General Essay 3 150
i. History & Cultural heritage of India with
emphasis on 20th century history of
ii. Social history of Andhra Pradesh i.e.,
the history of various social and cultural
movements in Andhra Pradesh
iii. General overview of the Indian
i) Planning in India & Indian Economy
ii) Land Reforms and social changes in
Andhra Pradesh after independence
iii) Andhra Pradesh’s Economy, present
status its strengths and weaknesses
i) The role and impact of Science &
Technology in the development of India
with emphasis on the applied aspects
ii) General awareness with the modern
trends in life sciences.
iii) Development and environmental
i) Data appreciation and interpretation
ii) The candidates will be asked to draw
their own conclusion from the data
presented in the tabular form in
graphical or otherwise
iii) Problem solving – duly structured
situation will be presented to the
candidates and they will be asked to
suggest their own solutions to the
problem arising out of situation.
Alternatively, they may be called upon
to prove the understanding of the
situation by answering certain
searching questions based on the
B. ORAL TEST (INTERVIEW) 75
GRAND TOTAL: 825
Other Important Points:
1. There will be a Screening Test (Objective type) comprising General Studies and Mental Ability.
This test is meant for short-listing the number of candidates to be admitted to the Written
(Conventional Type) Examination i.e., consisting of six compulsory papers. The number of
candidates to be admitted to the Written examination (conventional type) would be 50 times to the
vacancies available at material time irrespective of Communities.
2. The papers except General English may be answered in English or Telugu or Urdu chosen by
the candidates. However, a candidate is not permitted to write part of the paper in English and part of
it in Telugu or Urdu.
3. Candidates must appear for all the papers in Main examination and Oral test, who qualified for
the same. Absent in any of the above will be liable for disqualification.
4. The General English paper is for qualifying one and the standard of this paper is that of S.S.C.
The minimum qualifying marks in this paper are 40% for O.Cs., 35% for B.Cs. and 30% for SC/ST/PH.
These marks are not counted for Ranking.
5. In the event of the S.C. and S.T. candidates not coming up for selection with the existing
minimum prescribed for the selection in the competitive examination conducted by the Commission,
their selection shall be considered on the basis of Rank with reference to their performance in the
Written and Oral competitive examination.
6. Hall Tickets for admission to the Written Examination will be sent to the admitted candidates.
There is no need to submit separate application for this purpose. After Written Examination, eligible
candidates will be called for an Interview at the ratio of 1:2 with reference to the number of vacancies
duly following the special representation as laid down in General Rule-22 of A.P. State and
Subordinate Service Rules.
GROUP- I SERVICES
GENERAL STUDIES AND MENTAL ABILITY
(SCREENING TEST – OBJECTIVE TYPE)
1. General Science – Contemporary developments in Science and Technology and their implications
including matters of every day observation and experience, as may be expected of a well-educated
person who has not made a special study of any scientific discipline.
2. Current events of national and international importance.
3. History of India – emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social,
economic, cultural and political aspects with a focus on AP Indian National Movement.
4. World Geography and Geography of India with a focus on AP.
5. Indian polity and Economy – including the country’s political system- rural development – Planning
and economic reforms in India.
6. Mental ability – reasoning and inferences.
MAIN EXAMINATION (CONVENTIONAL TYPE)
(X CLASS STANDARD, QUALIFYING FOR INTERVIEW)
3. Re-arrangement of sentences
4. Correction of sentences
7. Filling in the blanks
8. Correction of spellings
9. Vocabulary and usage
10. Idioms and phrases
11. Verb tenses
13. Active voice and Passive voice
14. Parts of speech
(Candidate should write three Essays one from each section compulsorily. Each section contains
three topics. Each Essay carries 50 marks.)
SECTION-I : Crisis management, Social problems, Analysis and solutions.
SECTION-II : Current events of national and international importance.
SECTION –III : Current events relating to State of Andhra Pradesh.
HISTORY AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF INDIA WITH EMPHASIS ON 20TH
CENTURY HISTORY OF INDIA
1. Indus Civilization – Vedic Civilization – Distinction between Indus Civilisation and Vedic
Civilisation – Evolution of Varna, Jathi/caste system – Religious condition – Emergence of
Religious Movements (Jainism, Buddhism and other sects) – Rise of Magadha Imperialism –
Rise of Mahayana and Development of Art (Gandhara, Mathura and other Schools).
2. Advent of Islam and its impact – Influence of Islam on Indian Culture – Religious Movements
– Nature and significance of Bhakti Movements – Growth of vernacular languages, literature,
fine arts, architecture, monuments, Indo-Persian art and architecture - Vijayanagara empire
and their contribution to art, literature and culture – socio-economic conditions, administration,
fall of Vijayanagar empire – the Great Moghals and their contribution to Indian Fine Art,
Architecture and Fine Arts – Rise of Shivaji.
3. Stages of colonialism – changes in administrative structure and politics – factors leading for
the British supremacy, assistance of Indian Powers and the causes of failures – Civil rebellions
– Revolt of 1857 and its impact – Rise of nationalist consciousness and factors for the growth
of Indian Nationalism and Freedom Struggle : Three Phases :1885-1905, 1905-1920, 1920-47
and significance of Gandhian Era.
4. Rise and growth of Socio-Religious-cultural – anti-caste, Dalit and non-Brahmin, Justice/selfrespect
movements in modern India – Social reform organisations and role of intellectuals –
Raja Ram Mohan Roy - Dayanand Saraswathi - Jyotiba Phule - Narayana Guru - Mahathma
Gandhi - Ambedkar and others.
5. Nationalist Literature – growth of peasant and labour movements – role of leftist parties in antifeudal
and anti-colonial struggles-rise and growth of Women’s movements – origin and growth
of communalism – workers and peasant movements –freedom and partition of India; important
historical events after independence.
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY OF ANDHRA PRADESH
1. The Satavahanas and their contribution – social structure – religious conditions – growth of
literature and painting – Ikshvakus and their cultural contribution – Growth of Buddhism in
Andhra Pradesh – The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and their importance – socio-cultural
contribution – growth of Telugu language & Literature – education and learning – Religious
Sects – growth of art and architecture.
2. Socio- Cultural and Religious conditions in Andhra Desha between 1000 AD – 1565 AD
Growth of Telugu Language and Literature – Nannaya- Molla etc., fine arts and
architecture – Monuments – Significance – Contribution of Qutubshahis to Telugu
language and Literature – Art- Architecture- Monuments.
3. Modern Andhra - Socio-cultural awakening in Andhra – Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj,
Theosohica society – Adi-Andhra, Movements and role of Veereshalingam and others –
Non-Brahmin, Adi- Andhra /Dalit and Justice/self – respect movements – Gurram Joshuva
– Boyi Bheemanna – Sri Sri and others – Growth of Nationalist Movement in Andhra and
the Andhra Leaders during the Freedom Struggle – Role of socialists – communists – antizamindari-kisan
4. Asafjahi Dynasty – socio-cultural awakening in Telangana -Adi-Hindu Movement – Nizam
Rashtra Janasangham – Andhra Mahasabha – Andhra Saaraswata Parishat – The role of
Hyderabad State Congress and Vandemataram Movement.
5. Telangana People’s Armed Struggle – Ittehadul-Muslimeen – Razakars-anti-Nizam
Struggles and end of Nizam’s Rule and integration of Hyderabad State in Indian Union –
Formation of Andhra Pradesh.
GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
1. Nature of the Constitution – constitutional developments – salient features – Preamble –
Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and their relationship -
Fundamental Duties, Distinctive features of Indian Federation.
2. Distribution of Legislative Powers between the Union and the State; Administrative and
Financial relations between the Union and the States – Powers and the functions of
3. Unicameral and Bicameral Legislatures – Functions and crises of accountability, decline of
legislature - Delegated Legislation – Legislative and Judicial control over the delegated
legislation – Judicial review of administrative action.
4. Amendment of the Constitution – Basic Structure Theory – Emergency Provisions and Decentralisation
– Community development experiment – 3 tier model of Panchayat Raj –
73rd and 74th amendments and their implementation.
5. Welfare Mechanism in India: Provisions for scheduled castes, Tribes and Minorities;
Reservations for SC, ST and Backward classes; Prevention of SC and ST Atrocities Act;
National and State SC and ST Commission; Women’s Commission; National and State
Minorities Commission and Human Rights Commission.
PLANNING IN INDIA & INDIAN ECONOMY
6. National and per capita income and human development - Sectoral changes in the Indian
Economy (GDP and work force).
7. Indian Planning – Objectives, priorities, specific aims of the recent 5 year plan-- experience
and problems. Changes in the role of public-Private Sectors and their shares in the total
plan outlay before and after economic reforms.
8. Poverty and unemployment problems-- magnitude and measures initiated to ameliorate
9. Monetary policy – Structure of Indian Banking and non-banking financial institutions and
reforms in them since the 1990s—regulation of credit by RBI.
10. Pattern of revenue, expenditure and public debt and effects on the economy.
LAND REFORMS & SOCIAL CHANGES IN A.P. AFTER INDEPENDENCE
1. Historical background of land reforms and the change in laws from time to time –
Intermediaries abolition, tenancy reforms, ceilings on holdings and land issues in A.P.
2. Structure of the Andhra Pradesh economy - its sectoral and regional distribution and the
extent of poverty. Agricultural inputs and technology.
3. Demographic features and social backwardness, literacy and occupation structure;
changes in the sectoral distribution of income and employment. Socio-political and
economic empowerment of women.
4. State finances and budgetary policy – tax structure, sharing central taxes, expenditure
pattern in revenue and capital account as well as plan and non-plan accounts. Public debt
– composition - internal and external debt including World Bank loans.
5. Five year plans of AP – Outlays, financing public sector plan and resource allocation
pattern in the recent 5 year plan.
ANDHRA PRADESH’S ECONOMY, PRESENT STATUS, ITS STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
1. Growth and structure of industries in AP; Factories, small and tiny sectors, their
comparison, growth, weaknesses and problems.
2. Structure of agricultural outputs. Administrated prices including support and procurement
prices - Public Distribution System in Andhra Pradesh.
3. Regional disparities in income, industrial output, rainfall, irrigation, health and education in
4. Institutional and non-institutional sources of rural credit in AP - structure and growth -
cooperatives and their share in total credit - adequacy and problems.
5. Service Sector of AP – Importance, composition and growth with special reference to
transport and communication, tourism and information technology.
ROLE AND IMPACT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA:
UNIT 1: National policy of science and technology and changes in the policy from time to time,
UNIT 2: Space programme in India and its applications with special reference to industrial, agricultural
and other rural developmental activities, INSAT and IRS systems.
UNIT 3: Role of Information Technology in Rural India, basics of computers, computers in
communication and broadcasting, software development in economic growth. Broad IT applications.
UNIT 4: Energy Resources: Energy demands, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, the
development and its utilisation in the country.
UNIT 5: Current Science & Technology Developments in India, Climate change, Disaster
Management (Floods, Cyclones and Tsunami); Crop science in India, Fertilisers, Control of pests and
diseases – scenario in India; Drinking water and supply, urbanisation and industrial development.
GENERAL AWARENESS WITH THE MODERN TRENDS IN LIFE SCIENCES
UNIT 1: Progress of Agricultural Science and its impacts - Introduction to Biotechnology: History of
fermentation development, industrially important fermentation products (antibiotics, organic acids,
alcohols, vitamins, amino acids (only one in each category is to be studied)) Production of low
volume, high value fermentation products (insulin, growth hormones, recombinant vaccines,
UNIT 2: Plants and human affairs, characteristics of plants, usefulness for mankind, origin of
agriculture, useful and harmful plants. Introduction to animals, Domestic and wild animals, usefulness
of animals for mankind, Exploitation of animals by man for food and medical advancements.
UNIT 3: Introduction to and applications of Genetic Engineering & Stem Cell Research: Basic
concepts (the basic process of genetic engineering) – Biotechnology in agriculture (Biofertilisers,
Biopesticides, Biofuels, Genetically modified crops, Tissue culture) animal husbandry (transgenic
animals- applications) and environment (Biotechnology in Environmental clean up processes).
UNIT 4: Microbial infections ; Common present day infections and preventive measures. Introduction
to bacterial, viral, protozoal and fungal infections. Basic knowledge of infections caused by different
groups of micro organisms – diarrhoea, dysentry, cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, viral infections like
HIV, encephalitis, chikungunya, bird flu – preventive measures during out breaks.
UNIT 5: Vaccines: Introduction to immunity, Fundamental concepts in vaccination and traditional
methods of vaccine production (production of DPT and Rabies vaccine), Production of Modern
Vaccines (production of Hepatitis vaccine), Applications of immunological methods in diagnosis.
DEVELOPMENT & ENVIRONMENT PROBLEMS:
UNIT 1: Environmental Segments, Promoting Environmental Protection, The Environment (Protection)
Act, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, Water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act,
Water pollution Cess Act, Forest conservation Act, Environmentalism
UNIT 2: Natural Resources: Forest Resources – Types of Forests, Uses of Forests. Water
Resources- Types of Dams, Drought Occurrences and Floods, Land Resources: Soils and Cropping
patterns, Mineral resources.
UNIT 3: Eco-Systems and Bio-diversity: Terminology of Ecology, Basic Concepts of Ecology, concept
of an Ecosystem, Food Chains in Eco systems, Types of Eco systems. Biodiversity and its
conservation: Types of biodiversity, Hotspots of Biodiversity, threats to diversity.
UNIT 4: Environment Pollution and Solid Waste Management: Air Pollution, water pollution, Soil
Pollution, Noise pollution. Solid Waste Management: Types of Solid waste, Factors affecting the
solid waste generation, Impact of solid wastes, Recycling and reuse.
UNIT 5: Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health. Global Environmental
Issues like Climate Change, Acid Rain, Global warming, Wasteland Reclamation, Watershed
management, watershed approach for sustainable development.
DATA INTERPRETATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING
1. Data appreciation and interpretation using ratios, percentages and averages.
2. Drawing conclusions from the data present in tabular, graphical and diagrammatical forms and
to point out deficiencies, limitations or inconsistencies therein.
3. Problem solving using the following:
a) Sequences and Series: Analogies of numbers and alphabets, completion of blank spaces
in a:b,c,d, odd thing out, missing number in a sequence or series.
b) Coding and decoding problems: A given word or group of letters in English are to be coded
or decoded based on the given code(s).
c) Date, time and arrangement problems: Calender and clock problems, blood relationship
and seating arrangements.
d) Passage Analysis: A duly structured situation will be presented to the candidates and they
will be asked to analyse and suggest their own solution to the problem arising out of
situation. Alternatively, they may be called upon to prove the understanding of the
situation by answering certain searching questions based on the situation.
Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission Group 2 Syllabus
1 GROUP-II SERVICES PAPER-I SUBJECT: GENERAL STUDIES (GAZETTED SERVICES) S.L. No Existing Syllabus Proposed Syllabus Suggestion for Substantiation on your Suggestions Additions / Deletions Additions Deletions 01 1. Events of national and inter national importance. 2. Current affairs- inter national, national and regional. 3. Contemporary developments in science & technology and information technology. 4. Social- economic and political history of modern India with emphases on Indian national movement. 5. Indian polity and governance: constitutional issues, public policy, reforms and e-governance 1. Events of national and inter national importance. 2. Current affairs- inter national, national and regional. 3. Contemporary developments in science & technology and information technology. 4. Social- economic and political history of modern India with emphases on Indian national movement. 5. Indian polity and governance: constitutional issues, public policy, reforms and egovernance initiatives. 2 initiatives. 6 . Economic development in India since independence. 7 . Physical geography of India sub -continent. 8 . Disaster management: vulnerability profile, prevention and mitigation strategies. 9. Logical reasoning, analytical ability and data interpretation. 6 . Economic development in India since independence. 7 . Physical geography of India sub -continent. 8** Disaster management: vulnerability profile, prevention and mitigation strategies, Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in the assessment of Disaster 9. Logical reasoning, analytical ability and data interpretation.
3 GROUP-II SERVICES, PAPER-I SUBJECT: GENERAL STUDIES (Non-GAZETTED SERVICES) S.L. No Existing Syllabus Proposed Syllabus Suggestion for Substantiation on your Suggestions Additions / Deletions Additions Deletions 01 1. Events of national and inter national importance. 2. Current affairs- inter national, national and regional. 3. Current developments in science, technology and information technology. 4. History of Modern India with emphases upon Indian national movement. 5. Economic development in India since independence. 6. Logical reasoning, analytical ability and data interpretation. 7. Basic things about Disaster management (CBSE-VIII& IX Standard). 1. Events of national and inter national importance. 2. Current affairs- inter national, national and regional. 3. Current developments in science, technology and information technology. 4. History of Modern India with emphases upon Indian national movement. 5. Economic development in India since independence. 6. Logical reasoning, analytical ability and data interpretation. 7. Basic things about Disaster management (CBSE-VIII& IX Standard). 8.** Geography of India- Physical, Cultural, Demographic, Economic, Social and Infrastructural aspects.
4GROUP-II SERVICES SUBJECT: PAPER-II S.L. No Existing Syllabus Proposed Syllabus Suggestion for Substantiation on your Suggestions Additions / Deletions Additions Deletions SECTION-I (i) SOCIAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY OF ANDHRA PRADESH 1. The Satavahanas and their contribution – social structure – Ikshvakus and their cultural contribution; Buddhism and Jainism; The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi – their socio-cultural contribution – growth of Telugu language & Literature. 2. Socio- Cultural and Religious conditions in Andhra Desha between first and fifteenth centuries of the Christian Era. 3. Establishment of British Rule – 1857 Revolt and its impact on Andhra and Hyderabad Sociocultural awakening ; Adi-Andhra/ Dalit and Justice/self – respect SECTION-I SOCIAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY OF ANDHRA PRADESH 1. Geographical features of AndhraIts impact on History and Culture. History of Andhra Jati- Andhra Desa- Telugu. Early history of Andhra up to MauryasThe Satavahanas – Social, Economic and Religious Structure, Contribution to Literature, Art and Architecture– Ikshvakus and their Cultural Contribution; Buddhism in Andhra. The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi – their Socio-Cultural contribution – Growth of Telugu language & Literature. 2. Socio- Cultural and Religious conditions in Andhradesa between 11th to 15th Centuries A.D, Growth of Telugu Language, literature, Art, Architecture and Painting- Contribution of Qutubshahis to Andhra History and Culture. 5 movements; Growth of Nationalist Movement in Andhra between 1885 and 1947 – Role of socialists – communists – anti -zamindari -kisan movements. 4. Asafjahi Dynasty – socio - cultural awakening in Telangana - Adi -Hindu Movement – Nizam Rashtra Janasangham – Andhra Mahasabha – Andhra Saaraswata Parishat – Hyderabad State Congress and Vandemataram Movement. 5. Growth of Leftist / Communist Movement and Telangana People’s Armed Struggle – Ittehadul -Muslimeen – Razakars -anti -Nizam Struggles and end of Nizam’s Rule. Integration of Hyderabad State into Indian Union – Formation of Andhra Pradesh – Important historical events after 1956. 3. Advent of Europeans - Trade centers - Andhra under the Company– 1857 Revolt and its impact on Andhra - Establishment of British Rule - Socio - Cultural awakening, Justice party/self respect movements - Growth of Nationalist Movement in Andhra between 1885 to 1947 – Role of Socialists – Communists – Anti - Zamindari and Kisan Movements. 4. Origin and growth of Andhra movement - Role of Andhra Mahasabhas - Prominent Leaders - Events leading to the formation of Andhra State 1953. 5. Asafjhahi Dynasty – socio -cultural awakening in Nizam State - Emergence of Andhra Pradesh 1956 – Important historical events from 1956 to 2014. 6 SECTION - I I (ii) GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION 1. Salient features of the Indian Constitution – Preamble, Fundamental Duties, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and their relationship. 2. Distinctive features of Indian Federation - Distribution of Legislative Powers between the Union and the State; Relative roles of Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. 3. Community development experiment – 3 tier model of Panchayat Raj – 73rd and 74th amendments and their implementation. 4. Welfare Mechanism in India: Provisions for Scheduled Castes, Tribes and Minorities; Reservations for SC, ST and Backward Classes; Prevention of SC and ST Atrocities Act; National and State SC and ST Commission; Women’s
SECTION - I I AN OVERVIEW OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION 1. Nature of the Indian Constitution – Constitutional Development – Salient features of Indian Constitution – Preamble – Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and their relationship - Fundamental Duties, Distinctive features - Unitary and Federal. 2. Structure and functions of Indian Government - Legislative, Executive and Judiciary - Types of Legislatures - Unicameral, Bicameral - Executive – Parliamentary, Presidential. Judiciary - Judicial Review, Judicial Activism. 3. Distribution of Legislative and Executive Powers between the Union and the States; Legislative, Administrative and Financial relations between the Union and the States – Powers and the Functions of Constitutional Bodies - UPSC, State Public Service Commissions, CAG.
4. Centre - State relations - Need for Reforms - Rajmannar Committee, Sarkaria Commission, M.M. Punchchi Commission, 7 Commission; National and States Minorities Commission and Human Rights Commission. 5. Unicameral and Bicameral Legislatures –Functions and crises of accountability, decline of legislature. Justice Sri Krishna Commission - NITI Aayog - Unitary and Federal features of Indian Constitution.
5. Amendment Process to the Constitution - Centralization Vs Decentralization - Community Development Progrmmes - Balwantray Mehta, Ashok Mehta Committees - 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts and their Implementation.
6. Indian Political Parties - National, Regional - One Party, Bi -Party, Multi -Party Systems - Regionalism and Sub - Regionalism– Demand for New States - National Integration - Threats to Indian Unity.
7. Welfare Mechanisms in India - Provisions for Scheduled Castes, Tribes and Minorities, Reservations for SCs, STs and Backward Classes - Prevention of SCs and STs Atrocities Act - National and State SCs, STs and BCs Commissions, Women’s Commission, National and State Minorities Commissions - Human Rights Commission - RTI - Lokpal and Lok Ayukt.
8 GROUP-II SERVICES SUBJECT: PAPER-III S.L. No Existing Syllabus Proposed Syllabus Suggestion for Substantiation on your Suggestions Additions / Deletions Additions Deletions Planning in India & Indian Economy 1) Planning in Indian Economy – Socio-economic objectives and outlays of 5 year plans – Major controversies of planning in India – Alternative strategies – Goals and achievements – shortfall of different plans – Planning in the market – Major reforms/policy changes effect from 1991. 2) Broad fiscal, monetary, industrial trade and agricultural policies, objectives, rationale, constraints and effects. 3) Geographic size – Endowment of natural resources, population; size composition quality and growth trends – occupational distribution – effect of British rule with reference to drain theory and Laissez faire Policy. PLANNING IN INDIA AND INDIAN ECONOMY Planning in Indian Economy Socio- Economic - objectives and outlays of Five Year Plans – alternative strategies - Goals and Achievements – Causes for failure of different Plans –New economic reforms 1991 – LPG. Indian Economic Policies Agricultural policies – Industrial policies since 1956 – IT industries – Monetary policy of RBI – Fiscal policy – Objectives – Fiscal Imbalance and Deficit Finance – New Foreign Trade Policy. Availability of Natural resources and Development Population- size, composition and growth–Trends; Occupational 9 4 ) Money banking and public finances – concept of money and measures of money supply velocity of money banks and credit creation, determination of price level – inflation, its causes and remedies , finance budget – taxes and non -tax revenue. 5 ) Meaning and measurements of growth - growth distribution and welfare, characteristics of under development, stages of development, sources of growth capital – human capital, population, productivity, trade and aid, growth strategies – types of average measures – dispersion -correlation - index numbers ; types, uses and limitations. distribution of Work force –Human Development Index. Money, Banking and Public Finance Concept of Money and measures of money supply’ – Banks and credit creation its causes and remedies; Budget – taxes and non - tax revenue. Meaning and measurements of growth Growth, Development and Underdevelopment – Characteristics of Underdevelopment – Stages of development – Sources of capital formation – Growth strategies; Types of Averages - Dispersion – Correlation – Types Index Numbers - Uses and limitations.
10 CONTEMPORARY P ROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN RURAL SOCIETY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANDHRA PRADESH 1. National Income & Main sectors of Economy, GDP (Gross Domestic Product), Per capita income and HDI (Human Development Index) as measures of development. Relative contribution of agriculture to income and employment in the recent four decades of AP. 2 . Five year plans of AP – Outlays, Finance in public sector plan and resource allocation pattern in the recent five year plan. 3 . Need for and aims of land reforms in AP – Structure of land holdings in AP. Forest, sown and irrigated area in AP. Cropping pattern. Sources of Agricultural finance in AP – Agricultural subsidies. 4 . Growth and structure of Industries in Andhra Pradesh , factories, small and tiny sectors, their comparison , CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ANDHRA PRADESH 1) National Income and concepts – Gross Demostic Product – Net Demostic Product , Percapita Income - and Human Development Index as measurement of development – contribution of agriculture to income and employment in Andhra Pradesh. 2. Five years plans of Andhra Pradesh – Outlays – Finance in public sector plans – Resource allocation pattern in the five year plans of Andhra Pradesh. 3. Land reforms in Andhra Pradesh – Need for Land Reforms – Structure of Land Holdings Forest and sown– Irrigated area – Cropping pattern – sources of agricultural finances – agricultural subsidies – public distribution system in Andhra Pradesh. 11 growth , weaknesses and problems - Institutional and non -institutional – growth and structure of cooperatives in Andhra Pradesh – Share of cooperatives in total credits – adequacy and problems. 5 . Structure of Agricultural outputs – administered prices including support and procurement prices – Public Distribution System in AP ; Service sector of AP – importance, composition and growth with special reference to transport and communication, tourism and information and biotechnology. 4. Industries in Andhra Pradesh – Growth and structure of industries – Role of Small Scale and Cottage Industries – structure of Co - operatives – share of Co - operatives in total credit of Andhra Pradesh. 5. Service sectors of Andhra Pradesh – Importance - Composition and growth with special reference to Power, Transport and Communication, Tourism and Information Technology in Andhra Pradesh.